X-ray powder diffraction is normally sensitive to the internal structure of crystalline materials. It can be used to determine the identity and quantity of crystalline phases in a sample. As well, powder diffraction can be used to determine the size of crystallites in a powder specimen.
X-ray diffraction can also be used to determine thickness, quality, and composition of thin-film materials.
Small angle x-ray scattering can be used to analyze crystalline and non-crystalline materials in bulk and in dilute solutions. Techniques include analysis of long-range periodicity in block-copolymers and determination of size distributions of nano-particle solutions.
TMI supports five x-ray instruments in EER 6.640.